Veterinary Information for Nigerian Dwarf Dairy Goats The information on this page has been personally & painstakingly compiled by me based on our own expereinces here in NW Oregon and my own personal research, it is my personal "manual" and it is constantly being adjusted & tweaked. I have posted it here for the sole purpose of helping other goat owners give their goats the best possible care. I trust that those using this information will know their own herd and land very well, so that they can make adjustments as needed for their specific situation. I am always updating this page, so if you see information that seems incorrect or out-dated please let me know. I try to keep it in Alphabetical Order as well.
* I am in no way a veterinarian or medical professional. If you have a serious situation PLEASE call your veterinarian immediately. There is no cost in a simple phone call, and the advice you receive could save your animals life!! The information below is here to help you work through a minor problem and/or work in coordination with your vet. I firmly believe that every animal owner should have a good working relationship with a knowledgeable livestock veterinarian BEFORE a problem arises!!
Acidosis - Symptoms of acute acidosis include bloat, staring off into space, decreased rumen movements, staggering, coma & possible death. Symptoms of sub-acute acidosis are reduced appetite, diarrhea, panting, decreased cud chewing & other signs of stomach problems. Provide goats with well-balanced diet that includes lots of forage (hay). Make feed changes, especially regarding grains, VERY slowly. Be sure that grain storage area's are locked up, be watchful of fresh spring grass intake.
Anaphylactic Shock - Animal collapses shortly after an injection. Animals will exhibit significant signs of pain. Sometimes following an injection of a substance they've had before. Epinephrine must be administered immediately. *We have recently had issues with our annual CDT vaccine in the goat kids, in 2019 and 2020 using Colorado Serum CDT3+. There was a very mild reaction in the goat kids of facial swelling, slight struggle to breathe/slight cough. I used straight dose of liquid Benadryl (Diphenhydramine HCI) *nothing at all added to it, just the straight liquid Benadryl product. I have also found these online emergency treatments for vaccine reactions: Epinephrine 1cc/100lbs given IM. I keep a bottle in my pocket while giving vaccinations/medications. Dexamethasone ( 1 cc per 20# IM) Liquid Benadryl (single ingredient Diphenhydramine HCI, no other additives for cough or cold) - 5mls to goat kids - 15-20mls for adult goats
Anemia Symptoms: lethargy, "off-feed", listless, pale inner lower eyelid color. Anemia can be caused by improper nutrition (lack of copper or iron), liver flukes, barber pole worms, stomach worms, blood-sucking parasites, or significant internal and/or external bleeding. Administer vit. B12 injection (2cc per 50lbs) and/or Red Cell supplement (2cc per 50lbs), possibly for a number of days to ensure recovery. Note: Best to get a fecal test done by your vet to understand which parasites to treat.
Baytril 100 (Enrofloxacin 100 mg/ml) - Vet prescription. (not Baytril 2.27%). Usage in goats is "off-label" or "extra-label," but this antibiotic is being used in goats by some veterinarians. The appropriate IM dosage is 4 cc's per 100 lbs. of body weight for five consecutive days. This medication is very effective against gut-related illnesses and works synergistically (better together than individually) with SMZ (sulfadimethoxazine with trimethoprim). Some jurisdictions prohibit use of Baytril or Baytril 100 in any form (injectable or tablets) in food-production animals because the withdrawal time from meat and milk has not been determined. Great for treating Joint Ill when no other antibiotic works. If you have a sick goat on which no other antibiotic is working, Baytril 100 is the drug of last resort.
BioMycin 200 (Oxytetracycline) Antibiotic similar to LA-200 except it has a "no sting" formula. Excellent against a variety of illness including pinkeye, mycoplasma, chlamydia, mastitis, uterine infection, respiratory issues, navel/joint ill.We use: 1cc/20lbs everyday for 5 days.
Bloat - "Dry" bloat = overeating of grains, sudden diet changes. "Frothy" bloat = overeating of lush damp hays such as clover or alfalfa. Frothy bloat forms thick "froth" in the rumen. Frothy bloat is very serious! Bloat signs = obviously distended tight left side, mashing or grinding teeth, kicking at belly, not chewing cud, no rumen sounds. Offer free choice baking soda. If bloat is severe, mix 2 tsp baking soda w/ 1/4 cup water & give orally as a drench. Massage the belly, walk/exercise. Do not make sudden feed changes & do not let goats overeat on fresh spring pasture. Be watchful of certain weeds & mold which can cause Bloat.
BoSe - BoSe (injectable) is by vet Rx only. Selenium/Vit. E Gel can be used instead & purchased at local feed stores, but may not be as effective. We use both, the injectable right before breeding & use the Gel for maintenance every season also.(5cc Gel = 3cc inj. BoSe)BoSe (Rx), used in selenium-deficient areas. Dosage = 1/2 cc @ birth & 2cc to adults bi-annually (best 1 month pre-kidding & breeding). (Do not use MuSe!)
Bottle Jaw - Firm or sometimes squishy bulge underneath the jaw due to swelling & a collection of fluids. Bottle jaw is often caused by liver fluke & worm issues. Article on "BottleJaw". Best cure is proper worming! Get a fecal done to see which worms are the problem & treat aggressively. Vitamin B injections may help recovery & Red Cell for anemia.
CAE - Noticeable in young kids as weak hindlegs, knuckling over in the knees, paralysis, & eventually death. In older goats CAE is seen by joint infections, enlarged joints, lameness & arthritis. Milking doe's can get hardened distended mastitis type udders which don't produce milk. Deadly disease. Eventually older animals "waste away". CAE is spread thru the mothers milk & possibly other body fluids too.CAE is prevented by removing kids IMMEDIATELY after birth & using only pasturized non-CAE infected milk or milk replacer. It is important that the kid be removed immediately so the mom is NOT allowed to lick or nurse kid. *We are a CAE free farm!*
C&D Anti-toxin - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that can be safely used for many problems when they already exist. Severe diarrhea in very young kids, toxicity caused by plants, poisons (bites, overeating disease, bloat, ruminal acidosis, and ingestion of toxic substances like azaleas and antifreeze are several examples), one of the products administered to combat Floppy Kid Syndrome . . . these are a few of the applications of this very versatile product. C&D Anti-toxin provides short-term protection (about 12 hours) but works quickly towards solving the immediate problem. Follow label directions. Must be refrigerated. Freezes at very high temperatures. C&D Anti-toxin negates any protection previously given by the CD/T vaccine, so you must wait for at least five days after completion of C&D Anti-toxin therapy and re-vaccinate the animal with the initial CD/T vaccine injection plus the booster 30 days thereafter. Must-have medication. Always have on hand. There is no substitute.
CD/T vaccine (Clostridium Perfringens Types C&D + Tetanus Toxoid Vaccine) - Over-the-counter made-for-goats product that provides long-term protection against overeating disease (types C&D) and tetanus. Kids of one to three months of age and all newly-purchased animals regardless of age should be vaccinated with 2 cc and then a second vaccination should be given 30 days later. Two injections 30 days apart are required in order to provide long-term protection. Annually thereafter, one injection of 2 cc per goat will renew the protection. Give SQ. It may cause an injection-site abscess, which is an indication of the body's positive reaction to the vaccine. In most cases, the abscess goes away in time.
CL - Highly contagious bacterial infection w/ recurring abscesses on the lower jaw and lymph node areas. Abscess ruptures with a "cheesy" white/yellowish pasty pus. CL can live in the soil & on surfaces for months or even years. New research has shown that CL organism can be inhaled into the lungs, injected into the body & transmitted via breeding. Deadly disease, causes ill-thrift, pneumonia, wasting away due to internal abscesses. Some farms are using a new CL vaccine made by Colorado Serum. Other options for control of CL include Formalin (10% formaldehyde) injections into the abscess or complete culling of infected animals. *We are a CL free farm!*
Chlamydiosis - Symptoms in adults are abortion in otherwise healthy looking animals, retained placenta's are common, giving birth to weak kids. Apparently this bacteria is best treated with a Tetracycline antibiotic. I understand this can be transmitted to humans as well as other animals.
Cocci or Coccidia - Diarrhea in young kids is HIGHLY indicative of Coccidiosis, a very common disease in kids. Kids may eat normally but still appear sickly, unthrifty, poor coat condition, poor growth rate, standing "hunched up", look 'shrunken' in their front end/shoulder area. Clinical signs include diarrhea, dehydration, emaciation, weakness - esp. in front legs. Cocci must be treated immediately to prevent lifelong intestinal damage & stunted growth. Cocci can be deadly if left untreated. Some goats are actually constipated & die acutely w/out diarrhea. Prevent coccidia by keeping pens & bedding clean & dry, water fresh, & avoid over-crowding. Articles on Coccidia, here &here. WE DO NOT RECOMMEND CORID FOR GOATS!! Kids 3 wks+ should be treated w/oral dosing for 5-7 days. Except with Baycox which is a single dose medication. Best to treat preventatively every 21 days until weaning.
Sulfadimethoxine Brand Names: -Albon Suspension 5% yellow liquid (Works great & tastes like Custard) We use 2.5cc per 5# day 1, then 2.5cc per 10# day 2-5. -Di-Methox Solution 12.5% GIVEN ORALLY = 3cc per 5# on day 1, then 3cc per 10# on days 2-5. This doesn't work for us. We use the Di-Methox 40% if we cannot get the Baycox product. -Di-Methox 40% injectable GIVE ORALLY = Some online info says 1cc per 5# given orally on day 1, Give 1cc per 10# orally for days 2-5 which is actually the 12.5% dosing. Math-wise this really should have a dosing of 1cc per 15lbs, but online info keeps that 12/5% dosing instead of calculating for the 40% product?? Do your research and dose as you calculate -Baycox - 1 dose @ 2.5 - 3cc per 15lbs every 21 days until weaning. A good one dose treatment.
Copper Deficiency - Deficient goats have dull rough coat, thin tail hairs, reddish tint and/or 'sun-bleached' coat color especially at the hip area (Click here, here & here for pic), low milk production. Kids w/deficiency experience weak unsteady legs, muscle tremors, etc. Severe copper deficiency will cause bent legs, arthritic joints, swollen joints, and if not treated immediately will cause permanent disfiguring of the legs. Here are some great articles from Saanandoah & Onion Creek I have come across in my research on deficiencies....http://www.saanendoah.com/copper1.html , http://www.saanendoah.com/cudeer.html ,http://www.tennesseemeatgoats.com/articles2/copperdeficiency.html Copper bolus w/Copasure. Dosage is 1 gram of tiny rods per 22 lbs of goat. So 100 lb goat gets 4.5 grams of rods. We monitor our goats coat condition & tail hair, and dose when we see the need, usually 2-4 times per year. *** (Update 2021 after moving to a new property just next door...after dosing copper in our buck herd we have experienced heartbreaking, sudden copper toxicity losses after just copper dosing in August 2021. It is suspected that I possibly dosed twice or accidentally double dosed the bucks somehow. The doe's are perfectly fine, & the bucks were perfectly fine until the stress of rut/minor pasture change/weather changes in late November/early December 2021 and then experienced sudden death with almost no symptoms and death within 24-48hrs. Necropsy performed on all deceased bucks, plus full mineral panel testing, discovered that the new property has almost no Molybdenum in the soil/pasture, and therefore an extreme low/almost non-existent amount of Molybdenum in their bodies, which caused a much higher than normal absorption of the copper when the bucks encountered a 'stressful event'. A slightly low zinc level also affected absorption of the copper. Our previous property was HEAVILY fertilized and over-seeded regularly to keep the grass/pasture in prime condition, the new property has not seen pasture care in probably a decade, and with the extremely wet marshy flat land, it is believed that the Molybdenum has been flushed out of the soil and caused this extreme depletion. Necropsies were performed at OSU and organs were sent to MSU Michigan State for full testing. The remaining live bucks also had blood draws and mineral analysis completed w/MSU in order to try and find a supplement program to save those that are still alive. Luckily two bucks were not here and not copper dosed in August, and while they do have a higher copper level even without the supplementation these bucks also have a normal-higher level of Zinc and Molybdenum to properly absorb the copper in their system.
Copper Toxicity - Copper slowly accumulates in the goats liver, excessive copper is released from the body causing reddish brown, dark urine. Symptoms include depression, difficulty breathing, reduced appetite, brick red/blackish colored urine, anemia/white eyelids. Many goat breeders suggest copper requirements of 20-30 ppm in a goats grain ration. And 1,000-1,500 ppm in the goats free-choice minerals. *** (Update 2021 after moving to a new property just next door...after dosing copper in our buck herd we have experienced heartbreaking, sudden copper toxicity losses after just copper dosing in August 2021. It is suspected that I possibly dosed twice or accidentally double dosed the bucks somehow. The doe's are perfectly fine, & the bucks were perfectly fine until the stress of rut/minor pasture change/weather changes in late November/early December 2021 and then experienced sudden death with almost no symptoms and death within 24-48hrs. Necropsy performed on all deceased bucks, plus full mineral panel testing, discovered that the new property has almost no Molybdenum in the soil/pasture, and therefore an extreme low/almost non-existent amount of Molybdenum in their bodies, which caused a much higher than normal absorption of the copper when the bucks encountered a 'stressful event'. A slightly low zinc level also affected absorption of the copper. Our previous property was HEAVILY fertilized and over-seeded regularly to keep the grass/pasture in prime condition, the new property has not seen pasture care in probably a decade, and with the extremely wet marshy flat land, it is believed that the Molybdenum has been flushed out of the soil and caused this extreme depletion. Necropsies were performed at OSU and organs were sent to MSU Michigan State for full testing. The remaining live bucks also had blood draws and mineral analysis completed w/MSU in order to try and find a supplement program to save those that are still alive. Luckily two bucks were not here and not copper dosed in August, and while they do have a higher copper level even without the supplementation these bucks also have a normal-higher level of Zinc and Molybdenum to properly absorb the copper in their system.
Cystic Ovaries - When the female's follicles do not rupture, instead they just continue to produce estrogen. Heat cycles can become inconsistent or nonexistent. Doe's can act bucky, become aggressive, mount other doe's. Medicines can help restore the doe's system. Many times the feed program itself is at fault by being too high in calcium and/or too low in phosphorus. Veterinary diagnosis is best. Verifying that your doe's are not getting excessive calcium and/or deficient in phosphorus can solve it too. * True cystic ovaries are thought to be hereditary to some degree.
Cydectin, Quest Horse Gel, or Moxidectin (we use Quest horse gel) - For adult animals only! NOT FOR PREGNANT ANIMALS! Controls: Lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms, larvae, lice, mange mites & cattle grubs. Good for external parasites. We use: 1/4th cc per 20lbs, every 19 days, 3 total doses. Do not overdose this wormer!
Diarrhea (scours) - Be watchful of coccidia in babies!! (see Coccidia above) Can be "helped" by eliminating grains & fresh grass & encouraging fiber/hay intake. 6+cc's Pepto-Bismol orally can be used every few hrs until a change is evident, be careful to not overdue Pepto or they can become constipated.
E. Coli, or Collibacillosis - Generally affects kids under 1 month old but can occur in adults. Symptoms = fever or subnormal temperature, grayish white diarrhea, loss of appetite, dry hair/skin coat, dehydration. Milking doe's can have a brownish watery milk. We've had no issue, nor do we know of anyone having had an issue with E.Coli. .but possible treatment may be Neomycin Gentamicin Sulfate, Biosol, Oxytetracycline.
Enterotoxemia - Caused by Clostridium perfringens type C or type D bacteria. Usually starts by overeating of grains, lush grass, or excess milk in a kids rumen. Possible fever, abdominal pain, depression, bloat, diarrhea (may have bloody stool), lack of appetite. Kids may cry out in pain, lay w/head flopped back, act listless, have seizures or convulsions. VERY fast acting disease, usually ends in death within 6-24hrs. Articles on "Enterotoxemia" and "Enterotoxemia" Vaccination of adult doe 1 month pre-kidding passes to the kids in-utero. Kids are vaccinated w/CD/T @ 4 wks, 8 wks, & 12 wks. If mom did not get vaccine, then kid w/entero should recieve 3cc's CD Antitoxin at 1st signs of Entertoxemia. Dose again in 10-12 hrs and can be dosed a 3rd time if necessary. Also give Penicillin & Probiotics for 3 days to prevent/treat secondary infections.
Epinephrine - If the animal collapses shortly after an injection this could be Anaphylactic Shock. Most often following an injection of a substance they've had before. Epinephrine must be administered immediately. You sometimes have only minutes to prevent death! 1cc per 100 pounds IM
Excenel RTU - Prescription injectable antibiotic. Ready-to-use equivalent of Naxcel. Effective against respiratory and urinary tract infections. Dose daily at 6 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight. Day One: dose twice 12 hours apart. Days 2 through 5: dose once daily. Give IM.
Floppy Kid Syndrome Affects young kids, birth - 4 weeks, bottle-raised or dam-raised. Symptoms include wobbly legs, especially rear legs, depression.. Bloat, sloshy belly due to rumen shutdown, acidosis. Possible fever, listlessness, lethargy, Great article by Ms. Rowe during the ADGA Convention 2005. Early administration of a sodium bicarbonate drench (Baking Soda w/water) to fix the rumen upset is very important. Remove ALL milk products for 24-72hrs & administer baking soda drench (1 tsp Baking Soda w/1 cup water) every few hrs until kid appears better & is passing normal stool. Give electrolytes & water mixed, & probiotics & Vitamin B Complex until kid is normal again.
Fenbendazole, Safeguard, Panacur - Controls: Lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms, stomach worms, tapeworms, intestinal worms, bankrupt worms & nodular worms, liver flukes (adult). This wormer is not very effective for us & we don't use it.
Foot & Mouth Disease -
Fortified Vitamin B Complex - Over-the-counter product. This product can be used instead of Thiamine since it has 100 mg/ml thiamine in it. Products without "fortified" in the label have inadequate levels of thiamine. If such products must be used, then the dosage must be increased to achieve a thiamine level of 100 mg/ml. Example: If the product has only 25 mg/ml thiamine, then the dosage given must be multiplied by four. B vitamins are water soluble; a healthy rumen produces B vitamins daily. Dosage is 4 cc per 100 pounds bodyweight.
Gentamicin - Used in specialized cases due to an unspecified withdrawal time in milk and meat. Has been used with great success in conjunction with Penicillin G for persistent mastitis cases. Much success in using 1 cc of Gentamicin as an injection in the first 12 hour period, followed by a high dose of Penicillin G (5 to 10 cc's) the next 12 hour interval, and followed by another 1 cc injection of Gentamicin during the next 12 hour interval...this 12 hour alternate treatment for at least 5 days but no more than 7 days combined has been extremely effective in treating persistent mastitis. As with any injections or treatments, it is advised that you work in conjunction with a veterinarians recommendations. Broad spectrum antibiotic effective on many gram negative and gram positive bacteria including, chlamydia, E. Coli, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Dosage for 100mg/100lb, IM - give 1cc per 100lbs with 100mg/ml solution
Hoof Rot Hoof scald -
Inverted Eyelid -
Ivermectin - For control of: Lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms, larvae, lice, mange mites & cattle grubs. External parasites. Barber pole worms, Doesn't kill tapeworms. Horse paste dosage: 3x the amount...so a 100lb goat would get a 300llb dose.
Ivomec & IvomecPlus - Ivomec Plus IS NOT FORPREGNANTANIMALS! Kills lungworms, liver flukes, great for lice & mites (IF given as an injection, Sub-Q)Doesn't kill tapeworms. 1cc per 30lbs injected SQ or given orally, then repeated in 2 weeks. Can be repeated a 3rd time if necessary. Have used 1cc per 25lbs injected SQ (or given orally) if I felt that the situation was more severe than a normal deworming.
Johne's Disease - Highly contagious bacterial disease of the intestines caused by bacteria Mycobacterium paratuberculosis. 2 main signs of Johne's Disease: diarrhea & weight loss. Hence the nickname "Wasting Disease" Proper vitamin & mineral control with high copper levels can manage this wasting disease, but there is no cure. Testing should always be done on new goats in your herd! *We are a Johne's free farm!*
Ketosis - Post kidding illness. Usually related to improper feeding. Improper metabolism & break down of fat in the body. Not getting enough quality nutrients to sustain conditioning & milk production. Excess ketones in the body/blood. Signs of ketosis can be sore feet, unable to stand, swelling in the lower legs/feet, off feed, depressed, sweet smelling breath and/or urine, staggering, muscle tremors, grinding teeth. It's best to prevent excess body fat PRIOR to late stage pregnancy to prevent this condition. If symptoms begin, try to reduce stress to the animal. Increase forage/roughage/hay, reduce grain, start Molasses/Karo Syrup drench (Mix 2 parts corn syrup to 1 part molasses. 20 - 30ml every few hrs. and/or NutriDrench 2oz every few hrs. and large doses of Probiotic paste given orally and large dose of injectable Vitamin B Complex for immune system & increasing appetite. I have heard of people also giving Propylene Glycol 90-120mls/3-4oz twice a day and reducing each day until doe is back to normal. Have also heard of people using Calcium Gluconate/CMPK 8oz orally 3x a day until doe is eating and symptoms subside.
Lice - Scratching, pawing, stomping, itching, patchy hair, dull hair coat, Permethrin 10% (Permectin II) mixed 50/50 w/Olive Oil to prevent burning the skin & hairloss. Apply by placing a few drops onto the skin at the shoulders/withers area and rump area. Usually 2-5cc's will treat an adult Nigerian goat. Also Co-Ral Dust, 5% Sevin Dust, Ultra Boss Liquid(Ultra Boss is great since it doesn't have to be mixed), and cattle pour-on's such as Eprinex (at 1cc per 20lbs) work great too. Shaving the animals in warm/sunny weather also helps kill lice, but watch for sunburn!! Use sunscreen.
Listeriosis/Goat Polio - Star-gazing, staring off into space, reduced appetite, walking in circles, blindness, seizures, muscle tremors. Caused by excess heat or stress, feeding too much grain and/or sweet feeds, too little roughage, moldy feed. Article on "Listeriosis" IMMEDIATE injections of Vitamin B-Complex (100 mg/ml of thiamine), 5cc/100lbs. Inject IM initially, then sub-Q or even orally afterwards. Continue Vit. B every 6 hrs until ALL symptoms are completely gone.
Mange / Mites - Small "bumps", sometimes cyst like & usually seen in groups over the body. Bald patches usually seen on the legs and feet first.1cc/40lbs of Ivomec injectable liquid, w/2nd dose 2-3 weeks later. Ivomec PLUS can be used too, but NOT on pregnant animals. We have used 1cc per 25lbs when we felt it was necessary.
Mastitis - Udder becomes swollen, hard, hot, sensitive to touch, sometimes slight fever occurs. Testing can be done thru a laboratory with just a small milk sample. Visit WADDL (Washington Animal Diagnostic Lab) for more info.
Micotil - Never use Micotil on goats. Cattle antibiotic causes quick heart attack and DEATH.
Multi Min Injectable - Vet Rx prescription. Cobalt-blue colored injectable liquid that must be used sparingly in goats suffering from severe mineral deficiencies. Overdosing is easy; this medication builds up in fatty tissues. Dose SQ only.
Nalalgen IP - Intra-nasal vaccine of short duration. Often breeders administer to goats before shipping or traveling.
Navel Ill / Joint Ill - (aka Navel Ill) occurs when bacteria travels up a newborn kid's navel cord and migrates to its joints. Over a period of days or weeks, the kid begins to limp as joints swell. Antibiotic treatment is required, is usually long term (weeks rather than days), and the kid may have life-long residual effects from the infection. Arthritis may develop as the kid gets older. Avoid Joint Ill by dipping the kid's navel cord immediately after birth in 7% iodine solution. Plus maintaining a clean kidding area. Nuflor & Nuflor Gold Broad-spectrum antibiotic for respiratory illnesses. Thick, use 18 - 20 gauge needles. 3cc per 100lbs. We dose daily for 3-5 days & give probiotics & Vitamin B Complex during illness.
Naxcel (ceftiofur sodium) - Vet prescription. Broad-spectrum antibiotic used for respiratory illnesses (pneumonia). Comes in two bottles: One bottle contains a powder which must be kept refrigerated even in powder form, and the other bottle is sterile water. When the two are mixed, they keep for only seven days. Draw syringes in dosages of 1/2 cc, 1 cc, 2 cc, and 3 cc, put needle caps on them, place the filled syringes in a zip lock bag, label and date it, and put the bag in the freezer. Syringes thaw quickly, but hold the needle cap upright, because the medication will settle into the needle cap and will be lost when the needle cap is removed. Newborn kids with respiratory distress or E.Coli infections need a minimum dosage IM of 1/2 cc daily for five consecutive days. A 100 pound goat needs at least 5-6 cc of Naxcel IM over the five-day course of treatment. I no longer use Naxcel but instead use Excenel RTU, the ready-to-use equivalent product that doesn't require refrigeration or mixing, or Nuflor Gold.
Nuflor Gold (florfenicol) - Vet prescription. My preferred antibiotic for respiratory problems, including pneumonia. Can also be used try to keep mastitis from becoming systemic. I tend to use Nuflor on adults and Excenel RTU on kids, but they are interchangeable. This is a thick liquid, so use Luer Lock syringes, or the needle may blow off the syringe. Dosage is 6 cc per 100 lbs bodyweight given IM for five consecutive days; newborn kids should receive no less than 1/2 cc. Keeps best under refrigeration in warm climates.
Oxytocin - Vet prescription. Used when a doe has not passed her afterbirth within 24-36 hours of kidding. Dosage is 1-1/2 cc per 100 lbs. body weight. In warm climates, keeps best when refrigerated.
Penicillin, Benzathine (long-acting penicillin) - Over-the-counter antibiotic. Has been overused and is often no longer effective for us. Dosage is 5 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM for five consecutive days. Must be refrigerated. Do not use this type of penicillin if Listeriosis or Goat Polio is suspected. I don't keep this penicillin in stock any longer.
Penicillin, Procaine (300,000 IU) - Procaine Penicillin must be used in higher than usual dosages in conjunction with Thiamine (Vitamin B1) in the treatment of Listeriosis and Goat Polio. Also is used to treat infection resulting from injuries, bites, and after difficult birthings. Over-the-counter product. Must be refrigerated.
Pirsue - Vet prescription mastitis medication. Expensive but excellent product.
Pneumonia - Pneumonia is the common term for a range of respiratory infections that kills goats quickly -especially kids. Common symptoms include quick on-set fever, labored breathing, runny nose, cough, listlessness, & "off feed" behavior. -- A new vaccine made specifically for goats is Colorado Serum's Pasteurella vaccine. Great articles on Goat Pneumonia: "Pneumonia in Goats" and "Pneumonia" Hydration, reducing fever, & immediately beginning antibiotics are KEY to the goats survival. Administer Banamine or baby aspirin to reduce fever. Nuflor (vet Rx) is best, oxytetracycline 200 mg/mL (LA200 or Bio-Mycin), or Tylosin 200 (Tylan 200) are 2nd choices but will work in a pinch. Administer daily for 5-7 full days.
Pneumonia Vaccine (Mannheimia Haemolytica Pasteurella Multocide Bacterin) - Over-the-counter injectable pneumonia vaccine by Colorado Serum. Made for goats. Requires two initial injections of 2 cc each 30 days apart for all young goats and any new purchases brought onto the property regardless of age, then booster annually thereafter. Give first injection in conjunction with first deworming and first CD/T vaccination. Repeat 30 days later then annually thereafter. Dosage is 2 cc for all goats, regardless of age, sex, weight, or breed.
Pink Eye - can use Terramycin - Over-the-counter product. Opthalmic ointment used to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.
Pregnancy Toxemia - Pre-kidding illness usually related to inproper feeding of the pregnant animal. Improper metabolism. Carefully/slightly increase feed intake in late pregnancy to meet the needs of growing fetus.
Safeguard (Panacur) dewormer - White-colored dewormer. No longer kills stomach worms in most of USA. Used to kill tapeworms. Used to treat Meningeal Deerworm infection.
Sore mouth - Contagious ecthyma -highly contagious viral disease of goats & sheep, essentially it's like Chicken Pox in goats (can also cross species into many other animals & people too) Also called Pustular Dermatitis. Produces scabby sores on the lips/mouth, sometimes on other hairless area's such as the udder or underside of the tail. Runs its course in 1-4 wks but may be extended when secondary infections occur. Article on "Soremouth" and another article here from Maryland Small Ruminant Page. There is a newer live virus "vaccination" for Sore Mouth that requires introducing the disease into the herd purposely as a "controlled outbreak" ,which then leaves the recovered animals with an immunity to that strain of Sore Mouth. *There are multiple strains out there though*
Terramycin - Over-the-counter product. Ophthalmic ointment used to treat Pinkeye, particularly in ulcerated eyes.
ToDay (cephapirin sodium)- Over-the-counter product for mastitis treatment in lactating does. Milk out the udder and infuse one tube of To-Day into each teat for three to five consecutive days. Use the alcohol wipe provided to clean the teat thoroughly before infusing medication to avoid introducing new bacteria into an already-infected udder.
ToMorrow (cephapirin benzathine)- Over-the-counter treatment for mastitis in dry does.
Urinary Calculi - Mostly seen w/male goats. Frequent urination or straining to urinate, hunched body especially when seeming to urinate, exceptionally full bladder and/or belly area. Bloody urine. Restlessness or anxiety. Ammonium Chloride can be added to the feed (1 tsp per 150 lbs) to reduce calculi buildup. Proper calcium to phosphorus ratio (atleast 2:1) in feed, hay, & minerals is critical. As is providing fresh, clean water at all times.
White Muscle Disease - Selenium Deficiency (White Muscle Disease) can cause weak legs & weak sucking reflex in newborns/kids. Weak pasterns & bent legs can also be a sign of selenium deficiency in adult goats. Prescription BoSe should be used in selenium-deficient areas at a dosage rate of 1/2 cc to newborns & 2cc's to adults atleast bi-annually (1 month pre-kidding & pre-breeding).
Valbazen Wormer - Good for all ages -NOTFORPREGNANTANIMALS! Controls: Lungworms, gastrointestinal roundworms, stomach worms, tapeworms, intestinal worms & liver flukes (adult).Valbazen is a liquid suspension dewormer given orally at the rate of 1cc/10lbs, every 19 days, 3 total doses. We use this w/ our babies until they are put onto the adult worming program.
Vitamine B-12 - Vet prescription. This red-colored injectable liquid is essential for use with goats who are anemic from worms. Also stimulates appetite. Administer 4 cc per 100 lbs. body weight IM. Keeps best refrigerated.
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